Checking Out a File Revision

Use co to check out a revision of a file from an RCS repository. To check out the latest revision of a file that you intend to edit (and to check in later as a new revision), use the −l (for "lock") option. Locking a revision in this fashion prevents overlapping changes being made to the file should another revision be accidentally checked out before this revision is checked in.




Viewing a File's Revision Log

Use rlog to view the RCS revision log for a file−−type rlog followed by the name of a file to list all of the revisions of that file.
· To view the revision log for file `novel', type: $ rlog novel RET




Concatenating Text

The cat tool gets its name because it concatenates all of the text given to it, outputting the result to the standard output. It is useful for concatenating files of text together. For example, suppose you have two files, `early' and `later'. The file `early' contains this text:




How to check a document for double words

One of the things that diction looks for is doubled words−−words repeated twice in a row. If it finds such a sequence, it encloses the second member of the doubled pair in brackets, followed by a right arrow and the text `Double word', like `this [<i>this −> Double word.]'.




How to count words,letters,lines in a file

Give the name of a file as an argument; if none is given, wc works on standard input. By default, wc outputs three columns, displaying the counts for lines, words, and characters in the text.




Show who is logged in and what is he doing.

The w tool is similar to who, but it displays more detail. It outputs a header line that contains information about the current system status, including the current time, the amount of time the system has been up and running, and the number of users on the system.




Redirecting Error Messages to a File

To redirect the standard error stream to a file, use the `>' operator preceded by a `2'. Follow a command with 2> and the name of the file the error stream should be written to.




Linux system directories

Depending on your Linux Distro , e.g. Suse,RedHat,Fedora,Ubuntu,Debian the structure of system directories may vary.




How to schedule shutdown or reboot on Linux

Even if you are using Linux Server edition, or Dekstop Edition you can shutdown your Computer or Server from shell.

Simply as root (or with sudo) type reboot , or halt and the computer will reboot or halt, emmediately. The command shutdown offers more flexibility with many more options for shutdown,halt,turn off,reboot...




How can I change the operating system that LILO boots on default

There are typically two sections in the file /etc/lilo.conf. One starts with "image=" and it is relevant to Linux, the other starts with "other=" and this is the dos/win section. The first to appear in /etc/lilo.conf is booted by default. So to change the system that boots on default, swap the sections. Don’t forget to re-run the command lilo after any changes to /etc/lilo/conf .




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